The Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing With Vascular Occlusion Achieved, At Lower Speeds, Oxygen Uptake Similar To A Traditional Maximum Test




Aerobic, Exercise, Kaatsu, Oxygen consumption, Vascular occlusion.


Introduction: Aerobic protocols and exercises are sought with less overload and that produce gains similar to traditional exercises. Therefore, understanding the changes that occur in incremental test with blood flow restriction(Tmax-BFR) and without blood flow restriction(Tmax-TRAD) is fundamental. Objective: To compare the responses of speeds, ventilatory thresholds(VT), maximum oxygen uptake(VO2max), blood lactate([la]), heart rate(HR) and Borg scale of Tmax-BFR vs. Tmax-TRAD. Methods: In this crossover study, non-athlete men who were submitted to two tests conditions(Tmax-BFR and Tmax-TRAD) were included. Data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations and Bonferroni test. Values p<0.05 were considered significant. Results: Five men were included(Age:22.6±1.1years). The 1stVT, 2ndVT and VO2max were similar in both conditions. However, Tmax-BFR has reached 1stVT(Tmax-TRAD, 9.0±0.7km/h; Tmax-BFR, 8.2±0.5km/h), 2ndVT(Tmax-TRAD, 13.8±1.6km/h; Tmax-BFR, 11.6±1.8km/h) and VO2max(Tmax-TRAD, 15.6±2.9km/h; Tmax-BFR, 13.0±2.1km/h) at significantly lower speeds when compared to Tmax-TRAD(p<0.0001). HR at 2ndVT(Tmax-TRAD, 189.2±20.7bpm; Tmax-BFR, 173.2±10.6bpm; p=0.014) and Maximum HR(Tmax-TRAD, 203.6±14.9bpm; TBFR, 178.8±9.7bpm; p<0.0001) were higher in Tmax-TRAD. The Tmax-BFR showed higher levels of [la] when compared to Tmax-TRAD for 1stVT(p=0.019) and 2ndVT(p=0.005). Conclusion: There was a reduction in speed of 1stVT, 2ndVT and VO2max, as well as lower cardiac effort in the 2ndVT and HR at the end of the test in the Tmax-BFR condition.

Biografia do Autor

Leonardo Peterson dos Santos, Medical School, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Bachelor of Physical Education, Centro Universitário Metodista - IPAMaster's degree by the Graduation Program in Medical Sciences at UFRGS


Manari D, Manara M, Zurini A, Tortorella A, Vaccarezza M, Prandelli N, et al. VO2 Max and VO2 AT: athletic performance and field role of elite soccer players. Sport Sci Health 12:221–226, 2016.

Tomlin D, Wenger H. The relationship between aerobic fitness and recovery from high intensity intermittent exercise. Sport Med 31 1–11, 2001.

Kodama S, Saito K, Tanaka S, Maki M, Yachi Y, Asumi M, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness as a quantitative predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in healthy men and women: a meta-analysis. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc 301: 2024–2035, 2009.

Laurentino G, Ugrinowitsch C, Aihara AY, Fernandes AR, Parcell AC, Ricard M, et al. Effects of strength training and vascular occlusion. Int J Sport Med 29(8):664–667, 2008.

Park S, Kim JK, Choi HM, Kim HG, Beekley MD, Nho H. Increase in maximal oxygen uptake following 2-week walk training with blood flow occlusion in athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 109:591–600, 2010.

Thomas HJ, Scott BR, Peiffer JJ. Acute physiological responses to low-intensity blood flow restriction cycling. J Sci Med Sport 21(9):969–974, 2018.

Sakamaki-Sunaga M, Loenneke JP, Thiebaud RS, Abe T. Onset of blood lactate accumulation and peak oxygen uptake during graded walking test combined with and without restricted leg blood flow. Comp Exerc Physiol 8(2):117–122, 2012.

Munhoz SV, Ramis TR, dos Santos LP, Ribeiro JL. Comparison of cardiopulmonary exercise testing performed with blood flow restriction vs. a traditional maximum test on execution speed, ventilatory thresholds and maximum oxygen uptake. Sport Sci Health 16, 685–690, 2020.

Bennett H, Slattery F. Effects of blood flow restriction training on aerobic capacity and performance: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 33(2):572-583, 2019.

Dos Santos LP, Santo RCDE, Ramis TR, Portes JKS, Chakr RMDS, Xavier RM. The effects of resistance training with blood flow restriction on muscle strength, muscle hypertrophy and functionality in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review with meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2021 Nov 10;16(11):e0259574.

Loenneke JP, Allen KM, Mouser JG, Thiebaud RS, Kim D, Abe T, et al. Blood flow restriction in the upper and lower limbs is predicted by limb circumference and systolic blood pressure. Eur J Appl Physiol 115(2):397-405, 2015.

Scott BR, Loenneke JP, Slattery KM, Dascombe BJ. Exercise with blood flow restriction: an updated evidence-based approach for enhanced muscular development. Sports Med 45(3):313-325, 2015.

Patterson SD, Hughes L, Warmington S, Burr J, Scott BR, Owens J, et al. Blood flow restriction exercise: considerations of methodology, application, and safety. Front Physiol 10:533, 2019.

Pope ZK, Willardson JM, Schoenfeld BJ. Exercise and blood flow restriction. J Strength Cond Res 27: 2914–2926, 2013.

Baker BS, Stannard MS, Duren DL, Cook JL, Stannard JP. Does blood flow restriction therapy in patients older than age 50 result in muscle hypertrophy, increased strength, or greater physical function? a systematic review. Clin Orthop Relat Res 478(3):593–606, 2020.

Abe T, Fujita S, Nakajima T, Sakamaki M, Ozaki H, Ogasawara R, et al. Effects of low-intensity cycle training with restricted leg blood flow on thigh muscle volume and VO2max in young men. J Sports Sci Med 9(3):452–458, 2010.

de Oliveira MFM, Caputo F, Corvino RB, Denadai BS. Short-term low-intensity blood flow restricted interval training improves both aerobic fitness and muscle strength. Scand J Med Sci Sports 26(9):1017-1025, 2016.

Suga T, Okita K, Morita N, Yokota T, Hirabayashi K, Horiuchi M, et al. Intramuscular metabolism during low-intensity resistance exercise with blood flow restriction. J Appl Physiol 106(4):1119-1124, 2009.

Loenneke JP, Thrower AD, Balapur A, Barnes JT, Pujol TJ. Blood flow-restricted walking does not result in an accumulation of metabolites. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 32(1):80-82, 2012.

Renzi C, Tanaka H, Sugawara J. Effects of leg blood flow restriction during walking on cardiovascular function. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42(4):726-732, 2010.

Abe T, Kearns CF, Sato Y. Muscle size and strength are increased following walk training with restricted venous blood flow from the leg muscle, Kaatsu-walk training. J Appl Physiol 100:1460–1466, 2006.

Loenneke JP, Thrower AD, Balapur A, Barnes JT, Pujol TJ. The energy requirement of walking with restricted blood flow. Sport Sci 4(2):7-11, 2011.

Paton CD, Addis SM, Taylor L-A. The effects of muscle blood flow restriction during running training on measures of aerobic capacity and run time to exhaustion. Eur J Appl Physiol 117(12):2579-2585, 2017.

Marfell-Jones TO, Stewart A, Carter L. International standards for anthropometric assessment. Glasgow, Scotland: International Society Advancement of Kinanthropometry, 2006. pp. 21–111.

Ozaki H, Kakigi R, Kobayashi H, Loenneke JP, Abe T, Naito H. Effects of walking combined with restricted leg blood flow on mTOR and MAPK signalling in young men. Acta Physiologica 211(1):97-106, 2014.

Goldfarb AH, Garten RS, Chee PDM, Cho C, Reeves GV, Hollander DB, et al. Resistance exercise effects on blood glutathione status and plasma protein carbonyls: influence of partial vascular occlusion. Eur J Appl Physiol 104(5):813–819, 2008.

Gonzales JU, Thompson BC, Thistlethwaite JR, Scheuermann BW. Association between exercise hemodynamics and changes in local vascular function following acute exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 36(1):137–144, 2011.

Ramis TR, Muller CHL, Boeno FP, Teixeira BC, Rech A, Pompermayer MG, et al. Effects of traditional and vascular restricted strength training program with equalized volume on isometric and dynamic strength, muscle thickness, electromyographic activity, and endothelial function adaptations in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 34(3):689-698, 2020.

Borg G. Psychophysical scaling with applications in physical work and the perception of exertion. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1990; 16(Suppl 1):55–58.

Diefenthaeler F, Candotti CT, Ribeiro J, de Oliveira AR. Comparison of absolute and relative phisiological responses of cyclists and triathletes. Rev Bras Med do Esporte 13:205–208, 2007.

Faude O, Kindermann W, Meyer T. Lactate threshold concepts: how valid are they? Sport Med 39:469–490, 2009.

Dekerle J, Baron B, Dupont L, Vanvelcenaher J, Pelayo P. Maximal lactate steady state, respiratory compensation threshold and critical power. Eur J Appl Physiol 89(3-4):281–288, 2003.

Ozaki H, Sakamaki M, Yasuda T, Fujita S, Ogasawara R, Sugaya M, et al. Increases in thigh muscle volume and strength by walk training with leg blood flow reduction in older participants. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 66(3):257-263, 2011.

Abe T, Sakamaki M, Fujita S, Ozaki H, Sugaya M, Sato Y, et al. Effects of low-intensity walk training with restricted leg blood flow on muscle strength and aerobic capacity in older adults. J Geriatr Phys Ther 33(1):34-40, 2010.

ACSM American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 9th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 2009.

Hughes L, Paton B, Rosenblatt B, Gissane C, Patterson SD. Blood flow restriction training in clinical musculoskeletal rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 51(13):1003-1011, 2017.

Centner C, Wiegel P, Gollhofer A, König D. Effects of blood flow restriction training on muscular strength and hypertrophy in older individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sport Med 49(1):95-108, 2019.

Pearson SJ, Hussain SR. A review on the mechanisms of blood-flow restriction resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy. Sports Med 45(2):187-200, 2015.

Yasuda T, Brechue WF, Fujita T, Sato Y, Abe T. Muscle activation during low-intensity muscle contractions with varying levels of external limb compression. J Sport Sci Med 7(4):467-474, 2008.

Mikus CR, Earnest CP, Blair SN, Church TS. Heart rate and exercise intensity during training: Observations from the DREW Study. Br J Sports Med 43(10):750-755, 2009.

Takano H, Morita T, Lida H, Asada K-I, Kato M, Uno K, et al. Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to a short-term low-intensity resistance exercise with the reduction of muscle blood flow. Eur J Appl Physiol 95(1):65–73, 2005.

Takarada Y, Takazawa H, Sato Y, Takebayashi S, Tanaka Y, Ishii N. Effects of resistance exercise combined with moderate vascular occlusion on muscular function in humans. J Appl Physiol 88(6):2097, 2000.

Hayes SG, McCord JL, Koba S, Kaufman MP. Gadolinium inhibits group III but not group IV muscle afferent responses to dynamic exercise. J Physiol 587(4):873-882, 2009.

Proia P, Di Liegro CM, Schiera G, Fricano A, Di Liegro I. Lactate as a metabolite and a regulator in the central nervous system. Int J Mol Sci 17(9):1450, 2016.

Yasuda T, Abe T, Brechue WF, Iida H, Takano H, Meguro K, et al. Venous blood gas and metabolite response to low-intensity muscle contractions with external limb compression. Metabolism 59(10):1510–1519, 2010.

Beneke R. Methodological aspects of maximal lactate steady state-implications for performance testing. Eur J Appl Physiol 89(1):95–99, 2003.






Artigos Originais